Duplicate messages and SMTP, February 1988
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An examination of a synchronization problem in the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is presented. This synchronization problem can cause a message to be delivered multiple times. A method for avoiding this problem is suggested. Nodding familiarity with the SMTP specification, RFC-821, is required.
For the definition of Status, see RFC 2026.
For the definition of Stream, see RFC 8729.